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The initial force to get an object moving is often dominated ion. Kinetic or dynamic friction occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together like a sled on the ground.

Note, this equation only applies to kinetic friction, not rolling friction. Physical deformation is associated with friction. While this can be beneficial, as in polishing , it is often a problem, as the materials are worn away, and may no longer hold the specified tolerances.

The work done by friction can translate into deformation and heat that in the long run may affect the surface's specification and the coefficient of friction itself.

Friction can in some cases cause solid materials to melt. Friction may occur between solids , gases and fluids or any combination thereof.

See aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Limiting friction is the maximum value of static friction, or the force of friction that acts when a body is just on the verge of motion on a surface.

Devices, such as ball bearings can change sliding friction into the less significant rolling friction. One technique used by railroad engineers is to back up the train to create slack in the linkages between cars.

This allows the train to pull forward and only take on the static friction of one car at a time, instead of all cars at once, thus spreading the static frictional force out over time.

Generally, when moving an object over a distance: To minimize work against static friction, the movement is performed in a single interval, if possible.

To minimize work against kinetic friction, the movement is performed at the lowest velocity that's practical.

This also minimizes frictional stress. A common way to reduce friction is by using a lubricant , such as oil, that is placed between the two surfaces, often dramatically lessening the coefficient of friction.

The science of friction and lubrication is called tribology. Lubricant technology is when lubricants are mixed with the application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives.

Because both friction and load are measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons , the coefficient of friction is dimensionless.

The value of the coefficient of…. Force , in mechanics, any action that tends to maintain or alter the motion of a body or to distort it.

History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.

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This technology is mostly applied in aerospace, rail, automotive, and marine industries. In order to reduce the weight of special auto parts, friction stir spot welding FSSW was proposed by some researchers for the connection of steel-aluminium dissimilar metals.

However, the steel-aluminium joints welded by FSSW are prone to brittle fracture and have lower shear load although they have high mechanical connection strength.

The friction stir spot welding brazing process integrates the brazing effects with the friction welding effects by the addition of solder.

The orthogonal test was performed to optimize the process parameters in order to achieve the best shear load of the joint.

The shear strength of the joint was studied by the shear test. The results showed that the shear load of the joint could reach The aluminium-zinc solder added could well wet the interface between aluminium and steel and promote the metallurgical bonding, thereby improving the shear load of the joint.

The simulation results were confirmed to be basically consistent with the data measured by the thermocouple.

Aluminium alloy has small density, high specific strength, good conductivity, and corrosion resistance.

The dual-phase high-strength steel is known for its high strength, high initial work hardening rate, and good anticollision performance [ 1 , 2 ].

The hybrid structure of aluminium alloy and high-strength steel is recognized as the ideal material for lightweight, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly vehicles, and it has been applied in some high-end vehicles at home and abroad [ 3 — 8 ].

However, the molten aluminium and steel are likely to form the brittle intermetallic compounds due to the low solid solubility between these two materials, which will reduce the mechanical properties of the joint [ 9 , 10 ].

Besides, distinct thermal physical properties of the two materials can easily lead to internal stress generation and assembly failure during welding [ 11 , 12 ].

Research has been carried out to seek processes for producing high-quality joints, and a great deal is about friction stir welding of dissimilar materials.

Ruxing et al. Rajendran et al. Wang Xijing et al. The weldability of aluminium alloy was analyzed by the orthogonal test with the equipment of back drawing FSSW [ 18 — 22 ].

The steel-aluminium joint prepared by the abovementioned spot welding modes has high mechanical connection strength since it is connected by the friction heat [ 23 , 24 ], but it also has some shortcomings.

For example, brittle fracture easily occurs, the shear load of joint is low in most cases, and the stirring head is prone to wear [ 25 — 29 ].

The fracture mechanism is also unclear. The friction stir spot welding brazing of steel and aluminium integrates the brazing and friction welding of the two types of metals by the addition of solder, capable of reducing the wear of the mixing head.

Therefore, a series of experiments on the friction stir spot welding brazing process of steel and aluminium with filler material added were carried out in this paper.

The FSSW brazing method was used for lap weld of two dissimilar metals, i. The parameters of FSSW process with solder added were optimized by the orthogonal test.

The fracture form and mechanism were also discussed in this paper. Simulation was carried out using ANSYS finite element software under the optimal welding process parameters obtained by the orthogonal test to verify the rationality of the parameters.

The chemical composition of the test materials is shown in Table 1. The bottom of the steel sheet was connected to the top of the aluminium sheet to form the lap joint.

The aluminium-zinc solder sheet and paste brazing flux were placed between the steel sheet and the aluminium sheet in advance, with the brazing flux under the solder.

Before the test, the aluminium sheet and the steel sheet were grinded with a grinder and sandpaper, respectively, and both materials were then cleaned with acetone.

During welding, the mixing head was slowly pressed down until its end contacted with the upper surface of the steel sheet. Then, the mixing head end was cooled by compressed air, and meanwhile, the mixing head rotating at high speed was pressed down while rubbing.

After reaching a certain depth, the mixing head kept staying at this position for a period of time until the mixing head and welding area turned red and lasted for certain time, and the welding was ended.

The orthogonal test method was used to optimize the rotating speed of the mixing head, the residence time, and the pressing depth of the mixing head.

The residence time refers to the time period from the beginning of rubbing the workpiece by the mixing head end to the beginning of retreat of the mixing head.

The pressing depth of the mixing head should not be too large so as to avoid the rapid wear of the mixing head due to the high hardness and strength of the steel.

The orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels designed according to the standard of the L 9 3 4 orthogonal table only requires 9 tests to be conducted in theory, but three samples were actually welded under each set of welding parameters obtained by the orthogonal test for the accuracy of the shear load test.

After welding, the universal testing machine was used to test the shear load of all the samples, and the average value was taken.

Table 2 shows the three factors and three levels selected based on the previous welding process test with no solder added.

Meanwhile, the thermocouple temperature measurement experiments were carried out, which were compared with the simulation results.

The orthogonal test results are shown in Table 3. For example, the shear load of the 1 sample joint could reach 9. It can be seen that the 2 sample has the maximum shear load Therefore, it can be concluded that the shear strength of welded joints is greatly improved by solder.

The influence of different factors on the shear load was studied by the range analysis. That range is the difference between the maximum and the minimum values of the average index value of each factor under each level.

A larger R A indicates a greater impact of the corresponding factor on the test indicators, so R A is the most important. The welding sample Figure 3 was processed by wire cutting before the shear test.

The weld seam is divided into four areas, which are base materials, the joint zone, the heat-affected zone HAZ , and the thermomechanically affected zone TMAZ.

Fine equiaxed recrystallization structure was formed in the joint zone owing to the severe deformation and friction heat. The TMAZ experienced plastic deformation, but no recrystallization was formed due to the lack of enough stress.

The occurrence of solubilization and coarsening of the strengthening phase in the TMAZ was dependant on the intensity of thermal cycle experienced in this zone.

The HAZ was only affected by heat and had the same grain structure as the base metals. Grains in HAZ grew greatly, and the strengthening phase coarsened under the influence of heating.

The fracture morphology of three typical shear fracture samples 1 , 2 , and 3 is shown in Figure 4. It could be seen that the steel sheet and aluminium sheet were separated in the fracture of sample 1.

The welding spot of the steel sheet was concave, part of the steel sheet adhered to the aluminium sheet, and the fracture position was mainly distributed in the mixing area.

However, the steel sheet surface of sample 2 was smooth and concave, and the crescent shaped fracture was formed in the middle of the solder joint, suggesting that large plastic deformation occurred to the joint at fracture.

The steel sheet of sample 3 was completely separated from its aluminium sheet from the edge of the solder joint, and the metal in the mixing area was almost all adhered to the aluminium sheet.

The fracture mainly occurred around the mixing area. It was found that the microstructure of the joint nugget area after welding was relatively small and uniform Figure 5.

The materials in the joint area reached the plastic state during welding. The plastic materials were mixed and stirred along the vertical direction of the weld seam, and they bore huge upset pressure at the same time, making the recrystallized grains unable to grow and facilitating the formation of equiaxed and fine grains Figure 5 b.

Besides, the wetted melted solder and the galvanized layer of the steel sheet spread between steel and aluminium and filled the gap between the two metals through capillary flow and finally were metallurgically combined with the base metals Figure 5 a.

According to the figure, the flow velocity of materials in different parts is different. Generally speaking, the flow velocity near the centre of the nugget area is smaller than that far away from the nugget area, and the material flow velocity in TMAZ is the largest.

The steel-aluminium joint welded by FSSW without the filler metal added in the previous test was easy to tear from the area around the mixing zone, which produced plastic deformation on the macro level, leading to adhesion between the upper and lower sheets, and even the generation of holes on one of the sheets.

At this time, the joint was connected mechanically rather than metallurgically. Different heat input resulted in different metallurgical degrees of the joint and varied metallographic structure.

The micromorphology of the fracture area of 1 , 2 , and 3 welding specimens with the filler metal added is shown in Figure 6 , and the fracture position of each specimen is indicated by the red arrow in Figure 4.

It can be seen from Figure 6 that the fracture surface of the 1 test piece is smooth and flat, with some obvious white blocks and a small amount of dimples on it.

There are a large number of small and nearly uniform dimples as well as few small lumps on the fracture surface of the 2 test piece, showing obvious plastic fracture characteristics.

The fracture surface of the 3 test piece is also relatively flat, and there are some coarse lumps distributed on it.

It is difficult to see the dimple morphology, which shows the obvious brittle fracture characteristics.

Based on the above analysis, we concluded that the fracture types were related to the connection strength of joints.

It is generally believed that there are both plastic fracture and brittle fracture. The well connected joints will show obvious plastic fracture characteristics, while the poorly connected joints will be prone to brittle fracture.

In order to further analyze the fracture mechanism of the joint and the composition of the microstructure lump, the energy spectrum analysis of the SEM morphology of points with red circles in 1 , 2 , and 3 samples was carried out.

The energy spectrum diagram is shown in Figure 7. According to the diagram, the white lump contained not only a great deal of aluminium and zinc but also a small amount of C and O, so it could be carbonates left behind by the surface film formed by aluminium alloy, O, and CO 2.

The presence of this surface film increased the brittleness of the joint and reduced its shear load.

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